材料结构

Structure of Materials

Discover the structure of the materials that make up our modern world and learn how this underlying structure influences the properties and performance of these materials.

908 次查看
麻省理工学院
edX
  • 完成时间大约为 16
  • 中级
  • 英语
注:因开课平台的各种因素变化,以上开课日期仅供参考

你将学到什么

How we characterize the structure of glasses and polymers

The principles of x-ray diffraction that allow us to probe the structure of crystals

How the symmetry of a material influences its materials properties

The properties of liquid crystals and how these materials are used in modern display technologies

How defects impact numerous properties of materials—from the conductivity of semiconductors to the strength of structural materials

课程概况

Structure determines so much about a material:  its properties, its potential applications, and its performance within those applications.  This course from MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering explores the structure of a wide variety of materials with current-day engineering applications. 

The course begins with an introduction to amorphous materials.  We explore glasses and polymers, learn about the factors that influence their structure, and learn how materials scientists measure and describe the structure of these materials.

Then we begin a discussion of the crystalline state, exploring what it means for a material to be crystalline, how we describe directions in a crystal, and how we can determine the structure of crystal through x-ray diffraction. We explore the underlying crystalline structures that underpin so many of the materials that surround us.  Finally, we look at how tensors can be used to represent the properties of three-dimensional materials, and we consider how symmetry places constraints on the properties of materials.

We move on to an exploration of quasi-, plastic, and liquid crystals.  Then, we learn about the point defects that are present in all crystals, and we will learn how the presence of these defects lead to diffusion in materials. Next, we will explore dislocations in materials.  We will introduce the descriptors that we use to describe dislocations, we will learn about dislocation motion, and will consider how dislocations dramatically affect the strength of materials.  Finally, we will explore how defects can be used to strengthen materials, and we will learn about the properties of higher-order defects such as stacking faults and grain boundaries.

课程大纲

Part 1: An Introduction to Materials Science

Structure of materials roadmap
States of matter and bonding

Part 2: Descriptors

Descriptors: concept and function
Free volume
Pair distribution function

Part 3: Glasses

Glass processing methods
Continuous network model
Network modifiers

Part 4: Polymers

Random walk model
Chain-to-chain end distance
Order and disorder in polymers

Part 5: An Introduction to the Crystalline State

Translational symmetry
The crystalline state in 2D
The crystalline state in 3D

Part 6: Real and Reciprocal Space

Miller indices
Real space
Reciprocal space

Part 7: X-Ray Diffraction

Bragg’s Law
Diffraction examples

Part 8: Symmetry in 2D Crystals

Translation, mirror, glide and rotation symmetry

Part 9: Point groups in 2D

Allowed rotational symmetries in crystals

The 10 2D point groups

An introduction to crystallographic notation

Part 10: Plane groups in 2D

The five 2D lattice types
The 17 plane groups in 2D

Part 11: Symmetry in 3D Crystals

Inversion, Roto-Inversion, and Roto-reflection
Screw symmetry

Part 12: 3D Space Point groups

Space point groups
Stereographic projection

Part 13: 3D Space Groups

Crystal lattices
Space groups

Part 14: An Introduction to Tensors

Symmetry constraints on materials properties
Coordinate transformation

Part 15: Quasi, Plastic, and Liquid Crystals

Quasi crystals
An introduction to plastic and liquid crystals
Liquid crystal descriptors
Liquid crystal applications

Part 16: Introduction to Point Defects

Thermodynamics of point defects
Vacancies, interstitials, solid solutions and nonequilibrium defects

Part 17: Ionic Point Defects & Diffusion

Kröger-Vink notation
Extrinsic defects
Diffusion

Part 18: Dislocations and Deformation

Intro d shear stress

Part 19: Strengthening & Surface Energy

Strengthening Mechanisms
Surface free energy
Wulff shape

Part 20: 2-Dimensional Defects

Surface defects
Stacking faults
Grain boundaries
Surface reconstruction
Linear defects in liquid crystals

预备知识

University-level chemistry
Single-variable calculus
Some basic linear algebra

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