了解大脑:日常生活中的神经生物学

Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life

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芝加哥大学
Coursera
  • 完成时间大约为 50 个小时
  • 初级
  • 英语
注:本课程由Coursera和Linkshare共同提供,因开课平台的各种因素变化,以上开课日期仅供参考

你将学到什么

Brain

Neurological Disorders

Neurobiology

Neurology

课程概况

课程主要研究神经系统如何控制行为,人们每天如何使用大脑,以及神经科学如何能够解释影响当今人类的普遍问题。了解人类功能神经解剖学和神经元通信,并通过这些信息理解人类如何生存,如何自如移动身体,如何感知外部世界,以及如何与他人融洽相处。

日常生活中的神经生物学为期十周,适合所有对神经系统运行机制感兴趣的朋友。

主要包含三部分内容:
神经解剖学、神经元通信和神经系统。

我们首先从人类大脑的整体组织和细胞构建模块–神经细胞开始,研究一团胚胎细胞是如何发育成极其复杂的大脑,然后学习神经解剖学、脊髓、脑干和前脑;了解血液如何传输至大脑以及血脑屏障,通过对脑室系统的分析理解中风的不同类型;神经解剖学的最后一个单元,我们会重点讲解神经损伤、脊髓损伤、外伤性脑损伤、中风和脑部肿瘤。

在神经通信这一单元,我们主要研究电势如何携带神经细胞中的信息,重症肌无力以及神经毒气、肉毒杆菌、可卡因和β受体阻滞剂对神经细胞的作用。

课程最后一个单元,我们将运用前两个单元所学到的解剖生理学的基础知识,研究:1)人类如何感知外部世界;2)人类如何做出理性或感性的行为;3)神经系统如何允许人类生存;4)人类如何进行认知活动,使我们成为人类个体?我们将研究日常环境中的神经生物学,如多任务处理(边走边嚼口香糖)以及神经系统导致人体不正常运转的常见方式(如:晕动症)。通过这一单元的学习,大家将对常见的医学问题有所了解,如近视、听力丧失、发烧和帕金森综合症等。学习过程中,我们将根据神经生物学相关话题(时事,YouTube视频,疾病)每周定期展开讨论。

如果你对大脑充满好奇,正跃跃欲试,请加入我们的推特账户Twitter @neuromooc!

Learn how the nervous system produces behavior, how we use our brain every day, and how neuroscience can explain the common problems afflicting people today. We will study functional human neuroanatomy and neuronal communication, and then use this information to understand how we perceive the outside world, move our bodies voluntarily, stay alive, and play well with others.

课程大纲

周1
完成时间为 2 小时
The Nervous System
Neurobiology is a rapidly growing area of scientific research, and is becoming increasingly prevalent in the news and popular culture. In this course, we will study of the nervous system from a biological perspective by exploring the fundamental concepts in neurobiology, including how we sense the world, how we act in the world, and common neurological disorders.
17 个视频 (总计 85 分钟), 3 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周2
完成时间为 3 小时
Neural Communication + Embodied Emotion
Neurons are the cells of the nervous system responsible for communicating, relaying, and integrating information. Neurons "talk" to other neurons through a special type of language that involves electrical signaling within individual neurons, and the use of chemical compounds known as neurotransmitters to communicate between neurons. In this module, you will learn more about how a neuron functions at rest, how information is relayed within a neuron, and how neurons relay information to other neurons or target tissues. In the second half of this module, you will be learning about how the body and emotions work together to produce our everyday emotional experiences. We will look at the enteric nervous system and learn how to discern whether the sympathetic or parasympathetic system is impacting our current emotional state.
17 个视频 (总计 99 分钟), 3 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周3
完成时间为 4 小时
Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy tells us how the nervous system is organized. Understanding the form of the brain is essential to understanding its function. By comparing the structure of the brain with a patient's symptoms, neurologists are able to identify the location of certain disorders. Studying how the human brain develops provides insight to why it is organized as it is. This module, you will learn about how the brain develops during gestation, some major pathways in the nervous system, and what can go wrong!
26 个视频 (总计 206 分钟), 2 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周4
完成时间为 4 小时
Perception and Vision
Perception is how the brain interprets incoming stimuli. Not all stimuli that can be sensed are perceivable, and sometimes those that can be perceived play tricks on us. The systematic ways that stimuli are interpreted (or misinterpreted) show how well the brain can understand our surroundings, sometimes with limited information. This module we will explore perception and vision.This module contains a lot of material, so be sure to start early so that you have time to finish!
26 个视频 (总计 159 分钟), 3 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周5
完成时间为 2 小时
Hearing
The sound of birds chirping in the morning, a babbling brook or crashing waves on the beach, or warm conversation with the ones you love. The experience of all these things requires the ability to hear. Arguably the most important sense for human communication, it is also the most commonly impaired of our senses. In this module, you will learn how the human ear is artfully designed to enhance our ability to hear the human voice. You will follow sound waves as they travel from the external world, to the eardrum, through the bones of the middle ear, and to the cochlea that transduces sound information into neural impulses.
16 个视频 (总计 80 分钟), 3 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周6
完成时间为 2 小时
The Vestibular Sense & Gaze
The vestibular system and gaze control give us so much but are grossly under appreciated. They are so fundamental that we discount them, assuming that they will always be there. When the vestibular system fails us, its importance dominates our lives. Living with either a vestibular or an eye movement disorder is very disruptive to everyday life. In this module, you will learn how the inner ear is designed to detect and respond to head movements. You will learn about the circuit that connects the inner ear to the motoneurons that control the location of your eyes, allowing us to reflexively maintain our view of an object even as we move about in the world. Finally, we will talk about how you can modify this reflexive control of the eyes and how you can control where you are looking.
16 个视频 (总计 82 分钟), 2 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周7
完成时间为 2 小时
Voluntary Movements
"Voluntary movements are how we interact with the world. The organization of the motor system has implications for how we move, and the types of movements we can make. This module we'll start to explore the organization of the motor system, from neurons to muscles. This module contains a lot of material, so be sure to start early so that you have time to finish!"
18 个视频 (总计 89 分钟), 2 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周8
完成时间为 2 小时
Motor Modulation
You should now have an understanding of how muscles function to initiate movements. However, the brain requires more than just the cerebral cortex to determine what movements to perform and to make those movements smooth and guided. This module, we'll explore the cerebellum and the basal ganglia, fascinating structures that play a major role in movement. You'll also learn how these brain regions are involved in motor learning and disease.
19 个视频 (总计 99 分钟), 2 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周9
完成时间为 2 小时
Homeostasis
Although our bodies are very robust and we can live in a range of environments, our brain requires very specific conditions to function properly. Homeostasis is the active process by which our nervous system regulates internal conditions, such as blood pressure and temperature. This module we will explore what homeostasis does, and how it functions in everyday life.
13 个视频 (总计 73 分钟), 2 个阅读材料, 1 个测验

周10
完成时间为 4 小时
Abstract Function
You've now learned an incredible amount about the way the brain functions to perceive and act upon the world we live in. You've gained an understanding of neurobiology on a cellular level, and how many diseases and disorders of the nervous system can affect our bodies and minds. In our final module, we will journey into the realms of emotion, attention, memory, and language. By the end of this module, you will have a greater understanding of the more abstract cognitive functions the brain.

预备知识

我们鼓励所有对大脑感兴趣的朋友选择这门课,无需专业背景,对高中生物学知识有所淡忘的同学,我们会提供简短的补习课程,并为今后的学习提出建议。

参考资料

本课程相对独立,不需要其他教材,如果你希望进一步了解课程所涵盖的内容,我们推荐由本科讲师编写的教材(医学神经生物学,牛津大学出版社,2011年),该书对课上内容做了更深入的阐述。

常见问题

我需要具备哪些知识才能选修这门课?
没什么要求!不需要预备知识,只要有一颗好奇心。

课程适合哪些人群?
对大脑感兴趣的非神经生物学家是本课程的目标人群;欢迎所有喜欢研究大脑和神经系统的,来自各行各业的朋友加入。视频字幕会解释相关术语和基本的生物学概念,为不具备生物学背景或者需要补习的同学们提供便利。

选修这门课是否需要认同进化论?
研究自然史的相关内容,对理解包括神经系统在内的生物学知识是非常有帮助的。例如,在学习晕动症的时候,你要知道我们祖先生活的年代没有交通工具,为了在地球上生存迁徙,他们必须推动自身进步。这类方式我们称为行为学;同样,进化论也有助于我们研究神经生物学,例如,脊髓 -- 手臂、躯干、腿部以及腿部和会阴(鞍部)的局部解剖学源自于人类祖先的四足身体设计而非人类的两足身体设计。了解行为学与进化论观点将有益于课程学习。

神经生物学与神经系统科学,神经病学与精神病学之间有什么区别?
神经生物学和神经系统科学是指对所有动物,从海胆到蠕虫、海参、苍蝇、鱼、海龟、鸡再到小型啮齿动物、中型啮齿动物和人类的神经系统的研究。这两个术语大体上属于同义词,神经生物学包含更多生物学层面的内容,而神经系统科学更多涉及生物学以外的其他领域,如计算机科学、人工智能,语言学和经济学等等。
神经病学与精神病学同属于一个医学领域,重点研究人类神经系统的功能紊乱。这两个术语之间的界线比较模糊。 一般来说,情绪和思想上的障碍(如抑郁,精神分裂)属于精神病范畴,而活动(如麻痹,帕金森综合症)、知觉(如失明,慢性疼痛)和交流(语言)上的障碍则通常属于神经病学范畴。
本课程主要研究人类现代生活中的神经生物学:人类神经系统在日常生活中的运作机制。除了研究神经系统如何正常运行,我们还会讲到神经系统障碍的常见方式,以及援引自神经病学和精神病学的相关内容。

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