遗传学和进化论

Introduction to Genetics and Evolution

遗传学和进化概论,内容涉及基本理论和当前的应用情况,其中包括如何绘制致病基因图谱、如何将进化的概念应用于人类发展。

杜克大学

Coursera

生物

简单(初级)

39 小时

Sponsored\Ad:本课程链接由Coursera和Linkshare共同提供
  • 英语, 其他
  • 1008

课程概况

感兴趣的同学可通过本课程了解生物学基础领域的相关概念和原理, “基因组序列”这个概念我们经常听到,它可根据某人的DNA或疾病倾向来推断其祖先(包括原始人类)的特征,研究进化的真相、动物的特定行为,以及如何发现自然选择的遗传证据。” 参加本课程不要求具备专业背景,学生可以通过学习掌握生物学方面的基础知识,以便更好地理解相关问题,课程旨在纠正一些错误观念,为学生的后续学习奠定基础。

Introduction to Genetics and Evolution is a college-level class being offered simultaneously to new students at Duke University. The course gives interested people a very basic overview of some principles behind these very fundamental areas of biology. We often hear about new “genome sequences,” commercial kits that can tell you about your ancestry (including pre-human) from your DNA or disease predispositions, debates about the truth of evolution, why animals behave the way they do, and how people found “genetic evidence for natural selection.” This course provides the basic biology you need to understand all of these issues better, tries to clarify some misconceptions, and tries to prepare students for future, more advanced coursework in Biology (and especially evolutionary genetics). No prior coursework is assumed.

你将学到什么

Biology

Genetics

Evolution

Genomics

课程大纲

周1
完成时间为 20 分钟
Welcome to Genetics and Evolution
General introduction to this MOOC, including coverage and expectations.
2 个阅读材料

完成时间为 2 小时
Evidence for Evolution
This module discusses the definition of the word "evolution" in a biological context, evidence for the truth of evolution and common ancestry of species, and public thoughts and misconceptions about biological evolution. This module is optional and will not be included in the course assessments. There are not class discussion forums for this section, as we feel such discussion can happen on other, non-course-related, sites on this topic (of which there are a great many on the internet).
5 个视频 (总计 81 分钟), 1 个阅读材料

周2
完成时间为 2 小时
Genetics I
An introduction to basic transmission genetics and inheritance. This module reflects what is often covered in high school biology courses in the
USA.
6 个视频 (总计 74 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周3
完成时间为 2 小时
Genetics II
This module delves somewhat more deeply into genetics and specifically the concept of "recombination." It begins to discuss how
recombination is leveraged in classic genetic works as well as mapping simple genetic traits using crosses or data from natural populations.
7 个视频 (总计 97 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周4
完成时间为 2 小时
Genetics III
This module delves even more deeply into the complexities of the genetics underlying traits,the origin of genetic variation, and how "complex"
traits (ones controlled by multiple genes) are studied genetically.
6 个视频 (总计 75 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周5
完成时间为 2 小时
Heritability and Population Growth
This module begins the transition to evolutionary genetics by looking at the relative contributions of genetics and environment to traits, and
also introduces how population growth is studied.
6 个视频 (总计 74 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周6
完成时间为 2 小时
Population Genetics I
Rather than looking at individuals, this module discusses how multiple individuals from natural populations can be studied genetically to begin
to understand the evolutionary forces acting upon the populations.
6 个视频 (总计 69 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周7
完成时间为 3 小时
Population Genetics II
This module extends the previous one to specifically examine the effects of natural selection and genetic drift on genetic variation in natural
populations.
7 个视频 (总计 103 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周8
完成时间为 2 小时
Molecular Evolution
This advanced module explains why sexual reproduction (involving recombination) is evolutionarily advantageous, and discusses how the analysis of DNA sequences can be used to understand the evolutionary forces acting on populations or species, either in general or at specific genes.
7 个视频 (总计 88 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周9
完成时间为 2 小时
Adaptive Behaviors and Sexual Selection
This module changes gears a bit to look at the exciting field of animal behavior-- specifically, how particular behaviors are or may be adaptive,
and why individuals choose particular others as mates.
5 个视频 (总计 75 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周10
完成时间为 2 小时
Speciation and Phylogenetics
This module gets into the nitty gritty of what causes the formation of new species, and how evolutionary relationships between species are
inferred.
6 个视频 (总计 92 分钟), 1 个阅读材料, 2 个测验

周11
完成时间为 1 小时
Applied Evolution
This final module talks about applications and misapplications of many of the concepts discussed in the course to human health,
understanding, and well-being. This module is optional and not included in the assessments.

面向人群

不要求具备大学生物学背景,通过前几课的学习,学员便可快速了解遗传学的基本概念,如果中学阶段没有学过基础遗传学,可能会影响进度,但是通过学习本课程,并配合网络搜索,学员完全可以理解课堂内容。

预备知识

无需相关背景知识,如果你具备高中水平的数学(包括基础代数)知识,可以更好的有助你运用某些概念解决特定问题。本课不强制要求你理解一些通用概念,好好享受这门课吧。

参考资料

本课不依赖教材以外的书籍,如果您想扩充知识或进一步了解某个专题,探寻进化的证据和相关信息,请参阅以下书籍:
《Why Evolution Is True》(为什么要相信达尔文),作者:杰里·A.科因,2009年出版。

为了更深入理解进化和遗传学概念,我们推荐下列书籍作为本课程的补充阅读:
《Introduction to Genetic Analysis》(《遗传分析导论》),格里菲思, 安东尼等人著,2010年出版。
《Evolutionary Analysis》(《进化分析》),作者弗里曼,斯科特和约翰·赫伦。

常见问题

如果我不相信进化论怎么办?如果课程内容有悖于我的信仰怎么办?
课程第一讲就将介绍生物进化的证据,并在后续课程中深入讲解进化过程的大量细节,宗教人士无需以任何形式改变或放弃自己的信仰,只是考题会以课程相关内容为基础。

课程内容是否包括宏观进化,是否会讨论过去和现在的生物多样性(如:恐龙)?
目前的版本不包括宏观进化或生物多样性,本课程的进化专题主要针对微进化,不涉及恐龙,不过我们希望在后续课程中增加一些宏观进化的专题内容。

课程是否涉及分子生物学或生物技术的应用,如聚合酶链式反应 (PCR)或第二代DNA测序?
不涉及此类内容,本课程范围仅限于基本传输遗传学、重组、遗传作图和基础的定量遗传学,建议对其他专题感兴趣的同学参加Cousera发布的另一个课程《基因组科学概论》。

如果我对进化不感兴趣,只想了解遗传如何影响我的生活呢?
本课程有不少章节将遗传学和进化融合在一起,不过进化部分还是占了很大的比重,如果您对进化实在不感兴趣,只想了解遗传的实际应用,我们推荐Coursera发布的《实用遗传学》课程,希望您会喜欢。

课程是否涉及人体克隆或胚胎干细胞或多能干细胞的应用等内容?
不涉及。

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