科学和烹饪:从美味佳肴到软物质科学

Science & Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science (physics)

顶级厨师和哈佛的研究者会探索每天的烹饪和佳肴是如何说明物理学和工程的基本原理,以及反之亦然。

哈佛大学

edX

其他

简单(初级)

16 周

  • 英语
  • 625

课程概况

在每周的课程中,你将会观看大厨揭示他们最著名的佳肴背后的秘密,经常这都是在他们各自所在的餐厅中进行。受到这样的烹饪技艺的影响,哈佛的团队将会以简单或复杂的方法向大家解释食谱配方背后的科学。

具体内容会包括:软物质材料,诸如这是由蛋黄酱来说明乳胶的作用;用牛排的煮熟度解释弹性的意义;用 Ferran Adrià 首创的烹饪技术的调制现象诠释扩散的含义。

为帮助大家在烹饪和科学间建立联系,会通过“一周等式”来诠释即将探讨的核心科学概念。你还会有机会在自己的实验室及你的厨房中成为一名实验科学家。通过参考每周的食谱,进行测量和观察,你可以学习同时像厨师和科学家一样进行思考。实验也是本课程最独特的组成部分之一,毕竟还有哪个科学课程中,你可以吃掉自己的实验品呢?

在开始课程学习之前,请先尝试新版的edX Demo,从中可以了解趣味性的互动学习环境和虚拟实验室。

In this course, which investigates physical transformations in food, we will be visited by world-famous chefs who use a number of different styles and techniques in their cooking. Each chef will demonstrate how he or she prepares delicious and interesting creations, and we will explore how fundamental scientific principles make them possible.

Topics will include:

How cooking changes food texture
Making emulsions and foams
Phase changes in cooking
You will also have the opportunity to become an experimental scientist in your very own laboratory — your kitchen! By following along with the recipes of the week, taking precise measurements, and making skillful observations, you will learn to think like both a chef and a scientist. This practice will prepare you for the final project, when you will design and perform an experiment to analyze a recipe of your choice from a scientific perspective.

The lab is certainly one of the most unique components of this course — after all, in what other science course can you eat your experiments?

你将学到什么

The chemical and physical principles that underlie everyday cooking and haute cuisine techniques

How chefs can use enzymes to make foods that would otherwise be impossible

How to use the scientific method to learn how a recipe works, and find ways you could improve it

How to think like a chef AND a scientist.

课程大纲

Module 1: Elasticity
How do we describe food texture? In the first module of the course, we will explore the scientific concept of elasticity, which influences the texture of food, and how it changes during cooking. Discussions with Bill Yosses and Mark Ladner will address the role of gluten in dough and the challenges of working with gluten-free varieties.

Module 2: Viscosity
How can we make liquid foods more appealing? Just as solid foods can have different textures, so can liquids, largely determined by their viscosity, or thickness. Scientific discussions about what determines viscosity and demonstrations of different ways to change the viscosities of foods will allow us to explore this topic from different perspectives. We will hear from Harvard’s own Martin Breslin, Director for Culinary Operations, and Carles Tejedor, from Oillab and By restaurant in Barcelona.

Module 3: Emulsions and Foams
Emulsions and foams are some of the most interesting foods to think about from a scientific perspective, and we will investigate the physical principles that control their formation. Nandu Jubany will demonstrate how he uses emulsions and foams for a twist on traditional Catalan cuisine at his restaurant, Can Jubany. In the lab you can compete with other learners to see whose emulsion and foam rises the highest!

Module 4: Advanced Phase Behavior
The preparation of chocolate and frozen desserts such as ice cream are great illustrations of how chefs manipulate phase changes such as crystallization (freezing). In this module, we will discuss such concepts as nucleation of crystals and freezing point depression, and see how they can be used for chocolate tempering and making ice cream, which you will make yourself in the lab!

Module 5: Enzymes
The activity of enzymes can provide both benefits and challenges in the kitchen. After discussing the diverse roles that enzymes can play, we will investigate strategies to both restrict and exploit enzyme activity in cooking. Ted Russin and Wylie Dufresne will showcase some of their creative dishes that are only possible because of enzymes.

Module 6: Baking
To conclude the course, we will see how many of the topics that we have discussed come together in a popular cooking technique – baking! Joanne Chang and Christina Tosi will show us how to make delicious cakes, cookies, pies, and bread, and we will see how science makes it possible!

预备知识

Secondary school (high school) algebra, basic mathematics concepts

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